Humboldt penguins live in one of the world's most productive marine ecosystems, and as a result, are greatly impacted by human activity. Fishing industries deplete the penguins' prey and result in the trapping of penguins in fishing nets. The harvesting of guano - used as fertilizer - destroys optimal penguin nesting locations. Recent studies also suggest that climate change may intensify the weather cycle known as El Niño, which can lead to dramatic collapses in populations of many marine species, including penguins.
Why they're in trouble: